Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status-primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia-might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium's many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and therapy of many diseases.
A magnesium deficiency is associated with a variety of diseases. In humans, a magnesium deficiency is associated with cardiovascular diseases, e.g., hypertension, pre-eclampsia, arrhythmias, heart failure. Arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome often occur in magnesium deficient humans. In addition, magnesium deficiency can be at least one of the pathophysiological links that can help to explain the interaction between inflammation and oxidative stress with the aging process and many age-related diseases.